In this article, I will describe the topic “Partial Payments” in SAP® Accounts Receivable. We often receive the following questions: “How do we post a partial payment in SAP®?” “Which amount is cleared?” “Is the customer invoice open or cleared after a partial payment?” “Which clearing logic do we have?” Using an example, I will explain how you could manage a partial payment in SAP®.
Partial Payment of an open customer invoice
In the SAP® transaction FB03, we display the open customer invoice 85 which was posted for customer 54 in company code 1000 and fiscal year 2014. An amount of 1,475.40 Euro is open.
However, the customer does not pay the complete amount but makes a partial payment amounting to 1000 Euro. The amount can be entered in transaction F-28 (incoming payment):
After the entry of the parameters, the paid amount must be assigned to the open item in the next screen. Since this value does not correspond to the open amount, the value of the difference posting must be entered.
If you want to store the document, you get to the document overview. Now, a reason for the difference posting must entered. Just double-click the blue-highlighted line.
Afterwards, you see the detail view of the document line where a text must be entered (e.g. partial payment).
Afterwards, the clearing document is created.
If you take a look at this document in transaction FB03, you realize that two items were posted to the customer account.
The complete open amount of 1,475.60 Euro is cleared by posting key 15 (= incoming payment) in the credit. The payment amount with posting key 40 (= debit posting) and the difference amount with posting key 06 (= payment difference) are posted in the debit. A new item with an amount of 475.60 Euro had to be created to manage the partial payment.
The question the reader might have at this moment is certainly: “Was the customer invoice (document number 85) already cleared?” To answer this question, we take a look at transaction FBL5 where debit items are listed. When selecting this customer, you get the following information:
The open items are red-marked whereas the cleared items are green-marked. We see here that the customer invoice 85 with an amount of 1,475.60 Euro was cleared by document 1400000033. However, document 1400000033 also contains an open item which corresponds to the difference posting. The clearing document of the customer invoice has an open as well as a cleared item. The items 1 (payment amount) and 3 (incoming payment) are stored in table BSAD whereas item 2 (difference posting) is stored in table BSID. As soon as the customer pays the open amount of 475.60 Euro, item 2 in document 1400000033 is cleared. The clearing document of this item is stored under a new document number.
I would like to explain the clearing logic here again in a summary: As soon as a partial payment is done, the open amount is completely cleared by the clearing document. However, a new open item is created in the clearing document with an amount equal to the difference posting.
In this article I have shown you how partial payments can be handled in SAP® and which clearing logic is used. There are also other possibilities to manage this business case. In this example, the process was handled by difference postings. If you have more detailed questions, please contact me using the email address firstname.lastname@example.org anytime.
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